Products with Protected Designation of Origin – PDO – PDO
The “Denomination of Protected Origin” (DOP) is a trademark of legal protection of the denomination that is attributed – usually by law – to those foods whose peculiar qualitative characteristics depend essentially or exclusively on the territory in which they are produced. The geographical environment includes both natural factors (climate, environmental characteristics), and human factors (production techniques handed down over time, craftsmanship, savoir-faire) which, when combined together, make it possible to obtain an inimitable product outside of a certain production area. For a product to be DOP, the production, processing and processing phases must take place in a defined geographical area.
Products with Protected Geographical Indication – IGP – PGI
The term “PGI” refers to the name of a region, a specific place or, in exceptional cases, a country that serves to designate an agricultural product or foodstuff originating in that region, in that specific place or in that country and in where a certain quality, reputation or other characteristic can be attributed to the geographical origin and whose production and / or processing and / or processing take place in the given geographical area.
Guaranteed traditional specialties – STG – TSG
Recognition, pursuant to EC Regulation 2082/92, of the specific character of an agri-food product, understood as an element or set of elements that, due to their qualitative and traditional characteristics, clearly distinguish a product from other similar products. We therefore refer to products obtained according to a typical traditional production method of a particular geographical area, in order to protect their specificity. Products whose specific character is linked to the origin or geographical origin are excluded from this discipline; this aspect distinguishes the TSG from the DOP and from the IGP.
Typical Geographical Indication Wine – IGT
The basic requirements for the recognition of an IGT wine are reserved for wines whose production takes place in the respective geographical indication, the grapes from which it is obtained come for at least 85% exclusively from this geographical area, with the organoleptic characteristics indicated. The requirements are less restrictive than those required for wines with denomination of controlled origin (DOC).
The IGT is important as it is the first step (of the pyramid) that separates the wine without indication (from the table) from the wine with indication.
Since 2010 the IGT classification has been included in the community PGI category (as well as the DOCG and DOC in the DOP).
This category includes wines produced in certain regions or geographical areas (authorized by law), according to a production regulation; in addition to the indication of the color, they can also indicate on the label the indication of the grape variety used and the year of harvest of the grapes.
The IGT mention can be replaced by the mention Vin de pays for wines produced in Valle d’Aosta, and by the mention Landwein for wines produced in the autonomous province of Bolzano.
Generally this category includes wines produced in very large territories (typically a region but also very large provincial areas) according to a much less restrictive and strict specification than DOC wines. It should also be pointed out that, at times, the placing of a wine among IGTs is due both to commercial choices and to the impossibility, due to their composition (vines used or other aspect of the production process), of being part of the disciplinary of the areas of production in DOC and DOCG.
Wine with Denomination of Controlled Origin – DOC
The denomination of origin of wines means the geographical name of a particularly suitable wine-growing area; it is used to designate a quality and renowned product, whose characteristics are connected to the natural environment and to human factors.
The category of DOC wines includes wines produced in certain geographical areas in compliance with a specific production disciplinary. This Italian category belongs to the European PDO category.
These wines, before being put on the market, must be subjected in the production phase to a preliminary chemical-physical analysis and an organoleptic examination that certifies compliance with the requirements of the specification; failure to comply with the requirements prevents it being put on the market with the wording DOC.
The denomination of controlled origin was established with the decree law of 12 July 1963, n. 930.
Wine with Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin – DOCG
The category of DOCG wines includes wines produced in certain geographical areas in compliance with a specific production disciplinary. This Italian category belongs to the DOP category.
The DOCGs are reserved for wines already recognized as DOC wines for at least ten years which are considered of particular value, in relation to the intrinsic qualitative characteristics, compared to the average of those of the analogous wines thus classified, due to the incidence of traditional natural, human and historians and who have acquired renown and commercial enhancement at national and international level.
These wines, before being put on the market, must be subjected in the production phase to a preliminary chemical-physical analysis and an organoleptic examination that certifies compliance with the requirements of the specification; the organoleptic examination must also be repeated, game by batch, also in the bottling phase, for the DOCG wines there is also a sensorial analysis (tasting) performed by a special Commission; failure to comply with the requirements prevents it being put on the market with the wording DOCG.
The DOCG and DOC are the traditional specific terms used by Italy to designate the former VQPRD (quality wines produced in specific regions) now PDO.
As regards DOP wines, some denominations also include the types “Classico”, “Riserva” or “Superiore”.
The “Classic” specification indicates a wine produced in an area of more ancient origin within the same DOCG or DOC.
The qualification of “Reserve” is attributed to wines that are subjected to a longer aging period than the one foreseen by the disciplinary and with more restrictive production rules.
The word “Superiore” is attributed to wines that have a higher alcohol content than that of the basic type of wine specified in the specification.